what is the game


The game is an activity that enables the child to experience and learn on his own, to have fun and to be motivated internally, sometimes known as rules, sometimes self-developed and also includes feelings of happiness, enthusiasm, excitement and curiosity.

The game is an important activity in the development of children. The child finds a way to play and socialize with himself or his friends in every field. He takes responsibility for the games he plays, learns the social rules. Gains control through the game in terms of thought, emotion and relationships.

For adults, the game is a pointless effort to keep the child entertained. The game is the most natural way to communicate with children and share their world, and it is the most healthy way to give them results. For the child, the game is a world in which he lives and is happy.

What’s The Game ?

* The game is the expression of the joy of living .

* The game is a fact that exists with life and takes its power and effect from life.

* The most serious work of children.

* The most natural learning environment. Because the game is a field of experimentation where the child tests what he hears and sees, tries and reinforces what he has learned.

* The freedom of the child. The child who plays is in his own inner world, he dominates the world, he sets the rules and breaks the rules himself.

* The child’s creation environment.

In short, the game is an activity that is not considered to end, based on volunteerism, away from external pressures and coercion.

Game Types

Children’s play shows different characteristics according to their content, age and social, socio-economic situation. Researchers classify the game according to these characteristics. The classification of the game, provides great convenience for research.

Game Groups According To Cognitive Development Theory;

a. Exercise games

b. Symbolic games

c. Rules games

a-)exercise game: the child passes to the combination of actions and manipulations that are random and then purposeful. As soon as this happens, the child sets goals and the exercise games are converted into structures.

b-) symbolic play: pure practice games can also be symbolic, or at least “symbolized”, as the structures or series of actions that the child presents become symbolic.

C-) game with rules: game activities may become collective and win rules. So it can become ”rules”. This third transformation is the last transformation to take place (Nicolopoulou. 1993:140) .

Smilasky (1968) , in his studies with children, further expanded Piaget’s play stages. He has identified four different game phases in succession. Each phase contains different structures and behaviors, and includes more complex features and combinations.

Functional gameplay: this game phase is the foundation of the future game phases. In this phase, psychomotor and language skills to practice,recognize the environment and try to use the objects according to its purpose.

Build-in game: in this phase, children do research on how to use objects. They also show the desire to build, create, and use objects.

There are many types of games each age group can play. The games vary within themselves.


Types of games according to their nature

1 – Function Games: the period the child spends until the end of the age is considered as “milk age”. During these periods, the movements and games that the child has made naturally are called function games.

In the age of 0-1, milk age function plays are called involuntary and instinctive movements. For example, when the child is happy or excited, he / she makes a number of noises, waving his / her hands, arms, legs, and mirrors his / her feelings with such movements. He laughs in response to the moves made by the elders to make the child laugh; when an object that makes noise is given to his hand, he makes sound by shaking it; he makes a “head” by hitting his hand on his head by telling the elders.

The child tries to recognize the things that are interesting by taking them into his mouth. He begins to discover the laws of Physics by throwing, pushing and pulling everything he has taken into his hands. When the toy he throws falls, he follows with interest what it is, how it sounds, how it reacts to those around him, and repeats his behavior with many objects.

Children 1-3 age period is the period of autonomy. This period, aggression, contamination, breaking, such as his instincts for the satisfaction of motion and played games, the era of autonomy is called function games. This kind of movement and games are more of a “game” character.

For children of this age, games such as playing with noisy toys to expel aggression; playing with water, mud and clay to meet the urge to pollute can be an example of functional games of this era.

“Yellow reaper game is a game that helps the child to recognize his mouth, face, hand and develop his reactions.

Wrap the roll ( hands held in front, circles around each other as wool wraps) untie the roll (movement is reversed))
Ten kilos of fat (two hands stretched forward by opening ten fingers))
Ten kilos of honey (same motion is repeated))
Lollipops do not end (The Palms are made of licking motion)
Five to you (Five Fingers open and show to child))
Five to me (Five Fingers open and put in the chest))
Cık Çıkık cat (no means cık çık sound is removed, head and hands are made to destroy motion)”

2 – Ben games: these are games that help children get to know themselves in various ways and improve their abilities. The child is usually ‘I centerline’ in 2-3 years of age. At this age, the child takes care of himself more than he cares about his environment. He tries to recognize himself and his surroundings with his hands, body, eyes. He likes to play on his own, usually on his own. He plays his own game, even with other children; he doesn’t communicate. The reason for this is that it is not yet mature enough in terms of muscle, balance, language and cognitive development. For example, the child’s organs to recognize, vision-hearing-hearing, such as the development of skills, attention and perception skills to increase, Ben games can be easier.

‘Who is this? the ’ game ‘is important in terms of recognizing and communicating others in the’ ego period ‘ where children are egocentric. Children sit on a half-ring-shaped floor or chair. The teacher asks: ‘ I see a girl with black eyes and curly hair. Who’s this one? ‘ (Children look at the child that the teacher is caring for and find out who he is and tell him his name). The same game is played by asking other features, such as eye colors and formats, face formats, hair color and form.

3 – Shower power games (Fantasy games and representative): the child as an object, a phenomenon another phenomenon thinking as he founded the games. Children play the most loved games in preschool period. At the same time, the large muscles have developed quite well. They make it easy to flip, climb down to high places, swing on the escalator, ride a bicycle, walk on the balance board, kick a ball.

They create and implement new games. For example, he can use a stick as a “horse”, a box as a “pot”, a towel as a blanket, and a soda pop as a glass. In some games, he plays the role of a father, becomes a mother, wants to be seen as a baby. The doctor takes care of his patients; the teacher takes care of his students. Dream power games cover almost every subject. That’s why it can be played at home, on the street, in kindergarten… anywhere.

Home games are games such as mother, father, sister, sister, grandfather, child care, food, and hospitality. Professional games are played as grocery, grocery, butcher, bookstore, stationery shop, doctor. All of these games require creativity and use of imagination and help develop.

4-Cluster games: children play together is called games. Cluster games are often seen as contentious races or dramatization of an event. For cluster games, facilities should be provided in terms of location, equipment and duration. But in order not to be bored, attention should be paid to the short and rarely played games.

In this period of rapid development of small muscle, he is very skilled in terms of games and activities. Hand skills are strong. He makes understandable pictures and admires his works. Its activities are versatile (music, dance, song, play, painting, book…). At the same time, due to the continuation of the development of great muscle running, jumping, climbing, the whole body participates in the motion of pulling. Together, the games begin to multiply. When the game time is over, the kids don’t lose their game, the games usually take longer. Sometimes they can play the same game on the next day. Interest in comparative, Competitive games starts. From these Ages, the group games they play with their friends allow them to learn their social roles and even gain their sexual identity. For example, the child who plays the role of Father in the game, by mimicking his father, both exercise for his later life and adopts his sexual identity. During this period, observing the children’s games, how they perceive life and how they are affected by family relationships (during the game, a child who constantly yell at the baby or his friend in the role of the child, most likely sees similar behaviors from his parents.(see). For the child who adopts the roles of the opposite sex in the game (for the boy who is often the mother in their games), “I wonder, does he identify himself with his mother instead of his father in terms of sexual identity?” the question may come to mind .

The age range of the most intense physical activities is 5-6. Children of this age are very devious. Especially in garden activities, they choose the games they will use their muscles. Jumping rope, running out of the ladder, driving a car, swinging, jumping, jumping, hide-and-seek games are important in this period. Dream power games have been reduced, games have become more organized, conscious and balanced. They are fond of table games (painting, form concepts, puzzles) with devimliği cluster games. Painting, making pictures, copying easy pictures, games about letters, riddles and puzzles, jokes and rhymes, etc.…
Girl children : home, neighbors, school, play games such as doctors. They love to look at books, to have babies (paper, fabric, plastic) and to dress them with their own clothes, to be mothers and to take care of babies. Competition games are dedicated to helping, sewing, embroidery.

Boys : they usually like airplanes, spacecraft, trains, ship rides and pictures. They play war scenes in their games. They don’t like to be beaten. They play cowboy, grocery store, thief-COP, running games, ball games. (Pre-school Child Development and education project in Turkey, 1979))

1 – Outdoor Games:

Running games, emulation Games (human, animal, plant, nature events, vehicles are played by emulating games.)

Emulating walks and running (human, animal, and vehicle movements by emulating walking and running. )

Giant-dwarf, Lion walks (cars, locomotives, horse races are examples.) In the ring games (it is referred to as children sitting or playing in a ring).

2 – Salon-Class Games:

Room-class Games (these games are shaped according to children’s own rules. Educational toys, blocks free-Clock play Hall-class games)

Room – class games played at the time of the game (these games are rules. It can be played indoors as well as outdoors. All rules played at the time of the game are applied in three stages, heating-cooling-relaxing.

3-Non-Instrumental Games:

In this context, all kinds of games played without any intermediary, singing games, body movements and public games are studied.

4 – Car Games:

The balance games on a particular vehicle, the motion on the cushion, the seat grab, the game such as the tipla race.

5-Car Games:

Like ball games that are played with various tools.

All children’s games, regardless of the age and sex of the child, usually follow a certain order, anywhere in the world.

– The game follows a specific evolution and sorting. For example, when the child plays with objects such as stones, rods, pieces of wood, blocks, cans, matches boxes, he puts them side by side, after a while he tries to put them on top of each other, then he makes imaginary works, establishes a technical order. After building the works that he dreamed of and made up to the truth, he also uses additional materials to build the works from them, such as houses, cooks, stables, gardens, garages. The same development is observed in sand games and drawing.

– The number of games and activities, the variety of children’s age is reduced as they grow. Because the child spends more time in games that he or she is interested in and better fucked at the end of many experiences. As the child’s age grows, attention time increases, longer periods of time may give itself to a specific area, less bored. The time allocated to the game is reduced because of increased responsibilities.

-As the age grows, it can create a game with any object, anytime and anywhere, without being mentally attached to the toy. At the same time, as age grows, children’s games become formal and more rules. Develops in design. The body becomes stagnant and calmer. It increases its orientation to the games where it works in harmony with mind skills and body.

Finger game: finger games support hand-eye coordination of children. It helps the active children to calm down. Warnings to children are an effective and sympathetic way of communicating. Helps to obtain the defined concepts. Supports the development of memory skills. Social, emotional and cognitive development helps. Its influence on language development is quite high. It improves the imagination of our children.

Rhyme: short, pleasant phrases spoken by using the similarity of words, words and sounds. In some regions, mutual encounters of folk lovers, some prepared answers are in the form of rhyme. They can be semi-meaningful or meaningless because they are so-called gluttony and imaginary. Usually at the beginning of fairy tales, children’s games are made of similar words between each other. “There was one, there was two… ” as

Known types of rhymes can be listed as follows::

1. Play Rhymes: usually played between children. The rhymes are sung when the game is set up or when the person to manage the game is chosen. The person who hits the last word of the rhyme becomes the midwife or Game Manager. It is also called the method of extracting and displaying. “The crow said to the crow gak,” he said, “Come out and look at the branch…” the pilgrims crush the henna, and I know who they like… “and the rhymes like the basket is on the handwheel, the silver ring is on the finger…” are some of the playoffs.

2. Fairy-tale Rhymes: the storyteller tries to tell the story as if he had passed it from his own beginning with irrational, confused, cross-referenced, surprising, intriguing entry sentences. They are said to be a mixture of poetry and prose, obeying the principles of vizin and rhyme: “if I was a butcher, I could not shake the line, if I was a nalbant, if I was a nalbantam mule, what do we remember the friendly friend…” as in the examples.

3. It is a game that is difficult for people to say: The structure of sentences in a fast-talking rule is added to the difficulty.

“Are you one of the door creakers? Or are you one of the sparks? Did the Keşkekçi scoop or not? rhymes like ” are very common.

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